Research Articles on the Benefits of Physical Education
Research Articles on the Benefits of Physical Education
- Sixty Minutes of What? A Developing Brain Perspective for Activating Children with an Integrative Exercise Approach. Meyer, G., Faigenbaum, A., Edwards, N., Clark, J., Best, T., & Sallis, R. (2015). British Journal of Sports Medicine: “Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life.”
- A Physical Education Trial Improves Adolescents' Cognitive Performance and Academic Achievement: the EDUFIT Study. Ardoy, D. N., Fernández-Rodríguez, J. M., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Castillo, R., Ruiz, J. R., & Ortega, F. B. (2014). Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(1), e52-e61: “Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success.”
- Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance. Trost, S. (2009). Active Living Research: “This research shows that children who are physically active and fit tend to perform better in the classroom and that daily physical education does not hurt academic performance.”
- An Evaluation of the Relationship between Academic Performance and Physical Fitness Measures in California Schools. Singh, S. & McMahan, S. (2006). California Journal of Health Promotion, 4(2), 207-214: “Simple correlation coefficients revealed a positive linear relationship between academic scores and physical fitness scores. The interview with the teachers revealed that most of the 10 lowest scoring schools did not have a designated physical education teacher. All of the 10 highest scoring schools had designated physical education teachers and followed the physical education guidelines recommended by the California Education Board.”
- Do the Duration and Frequency of Physical Education Predict Academic Achievement, Self-concept, Social skills, Food consumption, and Body Mass Index? (2014). Simms, K., Bock, S., & Hackett, L. Health Education Journal, 73(2), 166-178: “Even at the low ‘dosages’ reported, physical education is associated with improved mental health, dietary choices, and academic achievement.”
- Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2013): "Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed."
- Enrollment in Physical Education is Associated with Health-Related Behavior Among High School Students. Tassitano, R., Barros, M., Tenório, M., Bezerra, J., Florindo, A., & Reis, R. (2010). Journal of School Health, 80(3), 126-133: "Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students. Findings suggest that higher levels of enrollment in PE classes could play a role in the promotion of health-related behaviors among high school students."
- Is There a Long-Term Health Legacy of Required Physical Education? Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. (2008). Sports Medicine, 38(4), 265-270: "This article documents current literature on the potential long-term effects of school physical education on various outcomes in adults. In order to expose children to such a wide choice of physical activities, more time should be allocated to physical education instruction."
- Motor Skills and School Performance in Children with Daily Physical Education in School - A 9-year Intervention Study. Ericsson, I., & Karlsson, M. K. (2014). Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(2), 273-278: “Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school.
- Physical Education and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Data From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Carlson, S., Fulton, J., Lee, S., Maynard, L., Brown, D., Kohl III, H., et al. (2008). American Journal of Public Health, 98(4), 721-727: "This study examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kindergarten through fifth grade. Among girls, higher amounts of physical education may be associated with an academic benefit. Physical education did not appear to negatively affect academic achievement in elementary school students. Concerns about adverse effects on achievement may not be legitimate reasons to limit physical education programs."
- Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls. Shen, B. (2015). Urban Education: “Findings suggest that besides the contribution to health promotion, African American girls’ participation in physical education may facilitate academic performance.”
- Physical Education and Sport in Schools: A Review of Benefits and Outcomes. Bailey, R. (2006). Journal of School Health, 76(8), 397-401: "This paper explores the scientific evidence that has been gathered on the contributions and benefits of physical education and sport (PES) in schools for both children and for educational systems. Research evidence is presented in terms of children’s development in a number of domains: physical, lifestyle, affective, social, and cognitive. The review suggests that PES have the potential to make significant and distinctive contributions to development in each of these domains."
- Physical Education in Kindergarten Promotes Fundamental Motor Skill Development. Lemos, G., Avigo, E., & Barela, J. (2012). Advances in Physical Education, 2(1),17-21: "These results demonstrated that regular physical education, composed by structured practice, ministered by a specialist promote gross motor development of children even at young age such as in kindergarten."
- Physical Education, Obesity, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Investigation of Australian Elementary School Children. Telford, R. D., Cunningham, R. B., Fitzgerald, R., Olive, L. S., Prosser, L., Jiang, X., & Telford, R. M. (2012). American Journal of Public Health, 102(2), 368-374: “The attenuated age-related increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development.”
- Physical Fitness in Children with High Motor Competence is Different from that in Children with Low Motor Competence. Haga, M. (2009). Physical Therapy, 89(10), 1089-1097: "This study examines how physical fitness developed over time in 2 groups of children: those with a low level of competence in motor skills (low motor competence [LMC]), and those with a high level of competence in motor skills (high motor competence [HMC]). Children with LMC are likely to have poor physical fitness compared with children with HMC. The differences in physical fitness outcomes between the groups were relatively constant over time."
- The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. CDC (2010): "The purpose of this report is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance, including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement."
- The Impact of Physical Education on Obesity among Elementary School Children. Cawley, J., Frisvol, D., & Meyerhoefer, C. (2013). Journal of Health Economics: “This paper measures that effect by instrumenting for child PE time with the state's mandated minimum number of minutes of PE, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) for 1998-2004. This represents some of the first evidence of a causal effect of PE on youth obesity, and thus offers at least some support for the assumptions behind the CDC recommendations. We find no evidence that increased PE time crowds out time in academic courses or has spillovers to achievement test scores.”
- The Relationship Between School Performance and the Number of Physical Education Classes Attended by Korean Adolescent Students. Sang-Yeob, K., & Wi-Young, S. (2012). Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 11(2), 226-230: “It was concluded that attending >3 PE classes per week was positively correlated with improved school performance and that attending <3 PE classes per week was negatively correlated with school performance in Korean adolescent students."