No Excuses! - A Documentary on Quality Physical Education
QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION ADVOCACY
EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES
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The Benefits of Physical Education
A Systematic Review of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Happiness: "Evidence showed a consistent positive relationship between physical activity and happiness. However, due to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, we cannot draw firm conclusions regarding the causal relationship between physical activity and happiness."
A Physical Education Trial Improves Adolescents' Cognitive Performance and Academic Achievement: The EDUFIT Study. “Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success.”
Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance. “This research shows that children who are physically active and fit tend to perform better in the classroom and that daily physical education does not hurt academic performance.”
An Evaluation of the Relationship between Academic Performance and Physical Fitness Measures in California Schools. “Simple correlation coefficients revealed a positive linear relationship between academic scores and physical fitness scores. The interview with the teachers revealed that most of the 10 lowest scoring schools did not have a designated physical education teacher. All of the 10 highest scoring schools had designated physical education teachers and followed the physical education guidelines recommended by the California Education Board.”
Do the Duration and Frequency of Physical Education Predict Academic Achievement, Self-concept, Social skills, Food consumption, and Body Mass Index? “Even at the low ‘dosages’ reported, physical education is associated with improved mental health, dietary choices, and academic achievement.”
Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School. "Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed."
Enrollment in Physical Education is Associated with Health-Related Behavior Among High School Students. "Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students. Findings suggest that higher levels of enrollment in PE classes could play a role in the promotion of health-related behaviors among high school students."
Is There a Long-Term Health Legacy of Required Physical Education? "This article documents current literature on the potential long-term effects of school physical education on various outcomes in adults. In order to expose children to such a wide choice of physical activities, more time should be allocated to physical education instruction."
Modeling The Economic And Health Impact Of Increasing Children’s Physical Activity In The United States. "If 50 percent of children would exercise, the number of obese and overweight youth would decrease by 4.18 percent, averting $8.1 billion in direct medical costs and $13.8 billion in lost productivity. Increasing the proportion of children who exercised to 75 percent would avert $16.6 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively."
Daily Physical Education Improves Motor Skills and School Performance A Nine-Year Prospective Intervention Study. “Daily PE and adapted motor skills training during the compulsory school years is a feasible way to improve not only motor skills but also school performance and the proportion of pupils who qualify for upper secondary school.
Physical Activity Opportunities Associated With Fitness and Weight Status Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities. "To identify physical activity opportunities linked to fitness and weight status among adolescents in low-income communities. Physical education is a valuable policy opportunity to improve student health. Promoting active transport may improve fitness but must be done in conjunction with community partnerships to improve the food environment in the vicinity of schools. Promoting the use of school grounds outside school hours (such as after-school programs) should also be prioritized in response to youth obesity."
Physical Education and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Data From the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. "This study examined the association between time spent in physical education and academic achievement in a longitudinal study of students in kindergarten through fifth grade. Among girls, higher amounts of physical education may be associated with an academic benefit. Physical education did not appear to negatively affect academic achievement in elementary school students. Concerns about adverse effects on achievement may not be legitimate reasons to limit physical education programs."
Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls. “Findings suggest that besides the contribution to health promotion, African American girls’ participation in physical education may facilitate academic performance.”
Physical Education and Sport in Schools: A Review of Benefits and Outcomes. "This paper explores the scientific evidence that has been gathered on the contributions and benefits of physical education and sport (PES) in schools for both children and for educational systems. Research evidence is presented in terms of children’s development in a number of domains: physical, lifestyle, affective, social, and cognitive. The review suggests that PES have the potential to make significant and distinctive contributions to development in each of these domains."
Physical Education in Kindergarten Promotes Fundamental Motor Skill Development. "These results demonstrated that regular physical education, composed by structured practice, ministered by a specialist promote gross motor development of children even at young age such as in kindergarten."
Physical Education, Obesity, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Investigation of Australian Elementary School Children. “The attenuated age-related increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development.”
Physical Fitness in Children with High Motor Competence is Different from that in Children with Low Motor Competence. "This study examines how physical fitness developed over time in 2 groups of children: those with a low level of competence in motor skills (low motor competence [LMC]), and those with a high level of competence in motor skills (high motor competence [HMC]). Children with LMC are likely to have poor physical fitness compared with children with HMC. The differences in physical fitness outcomes between the groups were relatively constant over time."
Positive Effects on Bone Mineralisation and Muscular Fitness after 10 Months of Intense School-Based Physical Training for Children Aged 8-10 Years. "In conclusion, 3×40 min/week with small-sided ball game group or circuit strength training over a full school year improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8-10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children.
Sixty Minutes of What? A Developing Brain Perspective for Activating Children with an Integrative Exercise Approach. “Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life.”
The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. "The purpose of this report is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance, including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement."
The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review. "This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport."
The Impact of Physical Education on Obesity among Elementary School Children.“This paper measures that effect by instrumenting for child PE time with the state's mandated minimum number of minutes of PE, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) for 1998-2004. This represents some of the first evidence of a causal effect of PE on youth obesity, and thus offers at least some support for the assumptions behind the CDC recommendations. We find no evidence that increased PE time crowds out time in academic courses or has spillovers to achievement test scores.”
The Relationship Between School Performance and the Number of Physical Education Classes Attended by Korean Adolescent Students. “It was concluded that attending >3 PE classes per week was positively correlated with improved school performance and that attending <3 PE classes per week was negatively correlated with school performance in Korean adolescent students."
Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity, and Academic Performance. "The available evidence shows that children who are physically active and fit tend to perform better in the classroom, and that daily physical education does not adversely affect academic performance."
Designed to Move Report: "To be successful in fighting the childhood obesity epidemic, significant emphasis on increasing physical activity levels in the home, community and workplace is required."
Fit for Learning - What Research Says about the Benefits of Sports: "Getting students active helps to tackle obesity – but it can also improve achievement and behaviour. We find out how."
Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education. "When a physical education class is incorporated into the academic curriculum there is not a reduction in academic performance in traditional academic programs...The research studies reviewed in this paper indicate that when physical activity is incorporated into an early education program, physical activity can reduce the growing incidence of childhood obesity and all the diseases associated with this condition."
Physical Education and 21st Century Learning. "To me, any subject that supports students' in feeling empowered and happier about life - through participation in physical activity - belongs in 21st century schools."
Physical Education Is Critical to Educating the Whole Child. "NASPE believes that physical education is critical to educating the whole child, and that all students in grades K-12 should receive physical education on a daily basis."
Promoting Physical Education: The Link to Academic Achievement. "This article presents several researches related to the relationship between physical education and academic performance, and the relationship of physical activity to academic achievement. Moreover, researches on the relationship of physical activity and points including the significant relationship of physical fitness and activity to academic achievement, engaging children to physical activity improves their cognitive ability and association of physical and social benefits of physical activity to success in school."
The Case for Daily Physical Education. "Know the roles and responsibilities of key players in reform and work collaboratively toward the goal of mandating and implementing daily physical education for all students in your state. Provide policymakers with the critical information they need so they willingly elect to allocate resources to physical education."
The Strongest Argument Ever. "My hope is that this blog will give you enough evidence to have changed your mind as well as those stakeholders you come in contact with. It is clear that physical activity is an area in schools that is seriously underdeveloped and unspoken of. There are schools spread out sporadically that are using action based labs and value fitness but they are extremely rare. Please be the change in your school that values fitness not only for test scores but for how much it helps every dimension of wellness."
The True Argument for PhysEd. "Using the data that Dr. Dudley gives us should help us in numerous ways. The first way is that is shows us that a Quality Physical Education Program should have students focus on movement, social skills, mindfulness, creating a positive self concept, and lowering their anxiety that they experience at school and home."
Top 10 Reasons for Quality Physical Education. "This article presents the reasons that account for the need for quality physical education given the current trends of obesity and physical inactivity among youths and adults. The reasons presented are intended for physical educators to use when communicating the profession's scientific base to the general public."
Why We Should not Cut P.E. "Eliminate physical education to increase time for reading and math, the theory goes, and achievement will rise. But the evidence says otherwise."